Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay-Behind Armies
|“Daniele Ganser has written a provocative account of one of the most secretive aspects of the Cold War: the creation and operation of the stay-behind networks in Western Europe, popularly known by their
Italian codeword Gladio (sword). Based on extensive research and covering the whole of Western Europe, Ganser illustrates how these networks -- originally conceived as resistance fighters in case the Soviet Union actually did occupy Western Europe -- actually engaged in illegal activities that, in a number of cases, led to violent acts of terrorism aimed at discrediting left-wing causes. In an age characterized by the 'war on terrorism,' Dr. Ganser's findings raise fundamental questions about the nature of the cold war and the role of intelligence organizations in democratic societies. It deserves a wide audience.”
Prof. Jussi Hanhimaki, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva
|“A hitherto unopened page of the Cold War's secret history is now revealed.”
Nigel West, World Intelligence Review, London
|" After secret stay-behind armies linked to NATO, the CIA and MI6 were discovered across Western Europe in 1990 political scientists and historians have refrained from investigating the phenomenon due to the delicacy of the topic and the scarcity of primary documents. Based on four years of research this courageous book of a promising Swiss scientist breaks the silence."
Prof. Georg Kreis, Director of the Institute of European Studies, Basel, Switzerland
|" Daniele Ganser tells the Gladio story with scholarly flair and clarity. By offering the first comprehensive assessment available in English, Ganser opens up an entire set of unexplored questions on both NATO and the secret cold war."
Prof. Andreas Wenger, Director Center for Security Studies, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland
|“This careful, thorough, and incisive study reveals for the first time the scale, grim history, and very threatening implications of the secret armies created by NATO -- in principle for defense, but as history reveals, "defense" shades off easily to terrorism, aggression, and manipulation of the domestic population. Particularly in today's climate, citizens should be extra vigilant. Ganser's important book should be urgent reading for all of those concerned with these crucial issues.”
Prof. Noam Chomsky, MIT, USA
|" Daniele Ganser’s new study on NATO stay-behind operations is an important milestone in understanding United States – European operations during the Cold War and beyond. It also helps demystify the role of intelligence operations in those relations. Put briefly, the “stay-behind” armies of Western Europe – originally organized to fight in the event of World War III – morphed into substantial clandestine political forces with deep roots in European police and intelligence agencies. According to parliamentary investigations, the stay-behind veterans of Gladio appear to have made and broke governments. Elsewhere, they provided channels for intelligence operations and other relationships largely unknown to the elected leaders of a half dozen democratic states. This is important stuff. "
Prof. Christopher Simpson, American University, Washington
|“For the first time in this book, Daniele Ganser has brought together the full story of the networks the Italians came to call ’Gladio’. This is a significant and disturbing history.
The information superhighway is barely a macadam path when it comes to putting light on the truth of the Gladio networks.
In this age of global concern with terrorism it is especially upsetting to discover that Western Europe and the United States collaborated in creating networks that took up terrorism. In the U.S. such nations are called “state sponsors” and are the object of hostility and sanction. Can it be the United States itself, Britain, France, Italy, and others should be on the list of state sponsors?
The Gladio story needs to be told completely so as to establish the truth in this matter. Daniele Ganser has taken the critical first step down this road. This book should be read to discover the overall contours of Gladio and to begin to appreciate the importance of the final answers that are still lacking.
Dr. John Prados, National Security Archive, Washington, USA